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Wednesday, October 1, 2014

AC light dimmer with Arduino

   A very interesting device is a AC light dimmer. With Arduino, we can made control with potentiometer (like in shops) or with push buttons. 
   I try more version, and now I present you a AC light dimmer with 2 push buttons for 16 steps and a alphanumerical LCD1602 display. I use 100W incandescent bulb at 230V/50Hz.
   My schematic is:
   For a good AC light dimmer, we need a zero cross detector and optocoupler who control a triac, like in this schematic (redesigned by me in Eagle PCB software after technical informations from https://arduinodiy.wordpress.com/2012/10/19/dimmer-arduino/):

   My handmade module is:

   In my case, I have 16 steps of intensity of bulb:
- bulb is off (0%):
- 1st step (6%):
- 2nd step (13%):
- 3rd step (19%):
- step no.4 (25%):
- stept no.5 (31%):
- step no. 6 (38%):
- step no.7 (44%):
- step no.8 (50%):
- step no.9 (57%):
- step no.10 (63%):
- step no.11 (69%):
- step no.12 (75%):
- step no.13 (82%):
- step no.14 (88%):
- step no.15 (94%):
- last step (100%), bulb is at maximum:
   My sketch is:
/*
AC Light Control
 Updated by Robert Twomey <rtwomey@u.washington.edu>
 Thanks to http://www.andrewkilpatrick.org/blog/?page_id=445 
 and http://www.hoelscher-hi.de/hendrik/english/dimmer.htm
 adapted sketch by niq_ro from
 http://www.tehnic.go.ro 
 http://www.niqro.3x.ro 
 http://nicuflorica.blogspot.com &  http://arduinotehniq.blogspot.com 
*/

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
// use LiquidCrystal.h library for alphanumerical display 1602
LiquidCrystal lcd(13,12,11,10,9,8);
/*                                     -------------------
                                       |  LCD  | Arduino |
                                       -------------------
 LCD RS pin to digital pin 13          |  RS   |   D13   |
 LCD Enable pin to digital pin 12      |  E    |   D12   |
 LCD D4 pin to digital pin 11          |  D4   |   D11   |
 LCD D5 pin to digital pin 10          |  D5   |   D10   |
 LCD D6 pin to digital pin 9           |  D6   |    D9   |
 LCD D7 pin to digital pin 8           |  D7   |    D8   |
 LCD R/W pin to ground                 |  R/W  |   GND   |
                                       -------------------
*/
#include <TimerOne.h>           // Avaiable from http://www.arduino.cc/playground/Code/Timer1

volatile int i=0;               // Variable to use as a counter
volatile boolean zero_cross=0;  // Boolean to store a "switch" to tell us if we have crossed zero
int AC_pin = 3;                 // Output to Opto Triac
int buton1 = 4;                 // first button at pin 4
int buton2 = 5;                 // second button at pin 5
int dim2 = 0;                   // led control
int dim = 128;                  // Dimming level (0-128)  0 = on, 128 = 0ff
int pas = 8;                    // step for count;
// version: 4m7 (15.04.2013 - Craiova, Romania) - 16 steps, 4 button & LED blue to red (off to MAX) 
// version: 7m3 (22.01.2014 - Craiova, Romania) - 16 steps, 2 button & LCD1602

int freqStep = 75;    // This is the delay-per-brightness step in microseconds for 50Hz (change the value in 65 for 60Hz)

 
void setup() {  // Begin setup
  Serial.begin(9600);   
  pinMode(buton1, INPUT);  // set buton1 pin as input
  pinMode(buton2, INPUT);  // set buton1 pin as input
  pinMode(AC_pin, OUTPUT);                          // Set the Triac pin as output
  attachInterrupt(0, zero_cross_detect, RISING);    // Attach an Interupt to Pin 2 (interupt 0) for Zero Cross Detection
  Timer1.initialize(freqStep);                      // Initialize TimerOne library for the freq we need
  Timer1.attachInterrupt(dim_check, freqStep);      
  // Use the TimerOne Library to attach an interrupt

 lcd.begin(16, 2); // set up the LCD's number of columns and rows: 
 lcd.clear(); // clear the screen
 lcd.setCursor(2, 0); // put cursor at colon 0 and row 0
 lcd.print("16 steps AC"); // print a text
 lcd.setCursor(0, 1); // put cursor at colon 0 and row 1
 lcd.print("dimmer for bulb"); // print a text
 delay (3000);
 lcd.clear(); // clear the screen
 lcd.setCursor(1, 0); // put cursor at colon 0 and row 0
 lcd.print("this sketch is"); // print a text
 lcd.setCursor(1, 1); // put cursor at colon 0 and row 1
 lcd.print("made by niq_ro"); // print a text
 delay (3000);
 lcd.clear(); // clear the screen
}

void zero_cross_detect() {    
  zero_cross = true;               // set the boolean to true to tell our dimming function that a zero cross has occured
  i=0;
  digitalWrite(AC_pin, LOW);
}                                 

// Turn on the TRIAC at the appropriate time
void dim_check() {                   
  if(zero_cross == true) {              
    if(i>=dim) {                     
      digitalWrite(AC_pin, HIGH);  // turn on light       
      i=0;  // reset time step counter                         
      zero_cross=false;    // reset zero cross detection
    } 
    else {
      i++;  // increment time step counter                     
    }                                
  }    
}                                      

void loop() {  
  digitalWrite(buton1, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(buton2, HIGH);
  
 if (digitalRead(buton1) == LOW)   
   {
  if (dim<127)  
  {
    dim = dim + pas;
    if (dim>127) 
    {
      dim=128;
    }
  }
   }
  if (digitalRead(buton2) == LOW)   
   {
  if (dim>5)  
  {
     dim = dim - pas;
  if (dim<0) 
    {
      dim=0;
    }
   }
   }
    while (digitalRead(buton1) == LOW) {  }              
    delay(10); // waiting little bit...  
    while (digitalRead(buton2) == LOW) {  }              
    delay(10); // waiting little bit...    
           

  dim2 = 255-2*dim;
  if (dim2<0)
  {
    dim2 = 0;
  }

  Serial.print("dim=");
  Serial.print(dim);

  Serial.print("     dim2=");
  Serial.print(dim2);
  Serial.print("     dim1=");
  Serial.print(2*dim);
  Serial.print('\n');
  delay (100);
 lcd.setCursor(2, 0); // put cursor at colon 0 and row 0
 lcd.print("power is "); // print a text
 lcd.print(100-100*(255-dim2)/255);
 lcd.print("%    "); // print a text
 lcd.setCursor(1, 1); // put cursor at colon 0 and row 1
 lcd.print("dim. level="); // print a text
 lcd.print(dim);
 lcd.print("  "); // print a text
}
NOTE: For 60Hz must change
int freqStep = 75;
in 
int freqStep = 65;
!
   I made 2 movies with this AC light dimmer:
ac light dimmer with Arduino (XVII)



53 comments:

  1. Hi first of all congratulations for your work, one question, i follow your design but my electrical network its 120VAC/60HZ i dont know if this is a problem, but when i load my code and press my buttons the bulb doesnt turn on only the led but when the dim2 its 239 the bulb turn on at 100% im using ltv4n35 i dont know iwhats the problem if you can help me please.? thank you.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Not sure if it is the problem but with 60 hz u have an 8.33 ms between the zero crosses as opposed to 10ms for 50hz.. so yr steps need to be smaller as 128*75=10.000 us=10ms. For 60 hz u need to Chang freqstep=75 I to 65.

      Delete
    2. Also, the two 91 k resistors ate probably way too large for 120 volt. Try 33k

      Delete
    3. I am the author of the arduinodiy article referred to https://arduinodiy.wordpress.com/2012/10/19/dimmer-arduino/
      two 91k are definitely too large, even for 230, let alone for 120.
      Using 33k is a good start but for 120 Volt, you should even go lower.
      The width of the zerocrossing pulse increases with a high resistor value, leading the interrupt to take place way before the actual zerocrossing. 2x 15k or one 33k might be a good value

      Delete
  2. in my country power supply is 230V/50Hz.. for 60Hz freqstep=65.. see http://playground.arduino.cc/Code/ACPhaseControl and https://arduinodiy.wordpress.com/2012/10/19/dimmer-arduino/

    ReplyDelete
  3. Sir where can i download the schematic above?

    ReplyDelete
  4. Is it possible to drive inductive load like a transformer with this circuit ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes, just add few components, see http://www.sonelec-musique.com/electronique_theorie_triac.html

      Delete
  5. hello great work, when i upload the code the button1 turns the light directly to 100% but the code says power is 0% to it, the schematic is wired like yours however i used a MOC3031 zero cross, and an SC141 triac as they were the only ones available at my electronic store that could manage the power. i am on 120VAC 50hz

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. put MOC without zero cross detector...

      Delete
  6. What if I'm using 60W incandescent light bulb for this project?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I use 100W bulb and is ok, so if you use 60W bulb is more ok :D

      Delete
    2. ok :D Thanks.By the way, can i get the list of component for this project ? because i'm trying to make this work for my Final year project.

      Delete
    3. print on paper the schematic ang go to shop ;)

      Delete
    4. ok :) Thanks
      Can i test the dimming circuit by using the electronic breadboard ? ( Before i make a PCB circuit )Can the breadboard handle the higher voltage ?

      Delete
    5. yes, you can test... see in my pictures ;)

      Delete
    6. what is the size for the PCB board circuit when you are using Eagle PCB software to design it ?

      Delete
  7. After I connect all the component and circuit , why the light bulb didn't light up ? I input the value then nothing happen.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You respect 100% the schematic?

      Delete
    2. I change the 4N25 to h11aa1 , moc3040 to moc 3021, then all the component are the same, I was using breadboard to test this circuit, have current flow but even the LED light didn't light up

      Delete
  8. parallel few bulbs can connect ??

    Thanks for the tutorial is very good, congratulations.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes, you can put more bulb lamps, but toal power must be less than 100-200W for normal use, but is you put heatsink on triack, can put more power...

      Delete
  9. Can I change the 4n35 opto to 4n26 ? And moc3040 change to moc3021 ?
    I also show the led didn't light up after I switch on the supply

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you can use any opto for zero cross detector (4N35, 4N26, etc), but for control the triac must use MOC with out zero cross detector...

      Delete
  10. When I switch on the supply , I only see the light bulb bright a bit and dim, even my led bulb at moc3021 there didn't light up , what is happen sir? my supply is 240vac 60hz, is the 91k resistor suitable ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. try first excample from https://arduinodiy.wordpress.com/2012/10/19/dimmer-arduino/

      Delete
  11. Sir, are you using the moc3021 with zero crossing detector? my led doesn't light up after I switch on the supply

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. if you see in schematic in s MOC3040.. in photo is MOC3020.. all without zero cross detector... so?

      Delete
    2. Yes, I understand .but sir,I have follow all your schematic connection , and still nothing happen ,even the led don't light up .

      Delete
    3. write a mail to me (nicu.florica@gmail.com) with photo...
      you change MOC3021 with MOC3020 or MOC3040 ?

      Delete
  12. Good morning, I built this project and wanted to create a steady fade from 0 to maximum intensity with a linear function, how could I do? I tried with the map function and a variable that increases by 1 but the lamp trembles. Thanks so much

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you want fade? see base article from https://arduinodiy.wordpress.com/2012/10/19/dimmer-arduino/ ;)

      Delete
    2. you can change to
      void loop() {
      for (int i=5; i <= 128; i++)
      {
      dimming=i;
      delay(10);
      }
      for (int i=5; i <= 128; i++)
      {
      dimming=133-i; // 128+5=133..
      delay(10);
      }
      } // end mai loop

      Delete
  13. Hi, interesting work. Is it possible to use with out a push button switch, and instead using a signal pulse from the arduino through the circuit to dim the light bulb? Looking forward to your reply.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I don't understund what you want to change... please explain more detailed...

      Delete
    2. I am currently finding a way in such that i can control the dimming of the light bulb just by programming the arduino. For instance: i wish to set the light bulbs brightness by 40% from the laptop.

      Delete
  14. The bulb just blink at the connecting and disconnecting the cable from power socket, it doesn't lighting. What can i done wrong? I have Arduino Nano copy from China.

    ReplyDelete
  15. you use exactly pins as in my schematic?
    also, try test sketch from: https://arduinodiy.wordpress.com/2012/10/19/dimmer-arduino/

    ReplyDelete
  16. Can We control the speed of AC Fan ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. see russian article from http://www.motor-r.info/p/blog-page_19.html ;)

      Delete
  17. Hi,

    Would it be possible for you to share your Eagle PCB files? I would like to get a board manufactured for my personal use (not commercial use). :-)

    Feel free to e-mail me at: cykey [at] live [dot] com

    Thank you!
    David.

    ReplyDelete
  18. hi .
    i tried to create the same circuit. but i am not be able to understand that in the diagram the B1 must be bridge rectifier circuit (with transformer) isn't it?
    also in your actual image can you tell me what component you have used on the position of B1. IT WILL HELP ME A LOT TO COMPLETE THE CIRCUIT. thanks in advance.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes, B1 is rectifier for max.1A/400V, but you can use 4 diodes 1N4007

      Delete
    2. hi . I really appreciate your reply on my post.
      I am using DB107 in the place of B1.
      I am very sorry for asking you this question again ( electronics is really not my field) . the input to B1 or the bridge is directly 220v AC or AC input from the transformer.

      Delete
    3. directlly at 220V AC.. in schematis in not any transformer

      Delete
  19. Nicule!!! Saluty , Imi spui te rog daca se poate controla turatia la un motor de masina de spalat cu acest dimmer si daca motorul va avea aceeasi forta si care ar fi schema electrica cea mai simpla.
    Ca vreau sa fac un programator de masina de spalat ca am o masina stricata si nu mai gasesc programator pt ea. Email-ul meu Aladinx36@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. salut... nu am timp sa testez, dar am gasit ceva pe un site rusesc, merita incercat: http://www.motor-r.info/p/blog-page_19.html

      Delete
    2. Mersi frumos , exact ce cautam.

      Delete
  20. hi
    can this be use for more than one line (bulb or light)at same time and control individually

    ReplyDelete
  21. what need to be done in the program code or the diagrams or the schem.
    finally it very cool and will help reducing the power bills
    good job

    ReplyDelete
  22. Hello! I'm redoing your project. I encountered a small problem. The lights on the lights are very weak. It seems I can not control the 100W bulb, it does not have any change, the lamp is off. Give me a fix. Thank you

    ReplyDelete
  23. These are some great tools that i definitely use for SEO work. This is a great list to use in the future..
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    ReplyDelete